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Notes

INTRODUCTION

{1}See P. Frank, "The Changing Composition of the Communist Party," in The Soviet Union since the Fall of Khrushchev (London, 1975), pp. 96-120; F. Hough and M. Fainsod, How the Soviet Union Is Governed (Cambridge, Mass., 1979), p. 574.
{2}See the comment about this thesis in M. Florinsky, Russia: A History and an Interpretation (2 vols.; New York, 1964), vol. I, pp. 215-216.
{3}For example, see V. Kluchkevsky, A History of Russia (5 vols.; London, 1926), vol. IV.
{3a}As late as 1571 Moscow was partly burned by the Tatars, and in 1591 another Tatar raid approached the walls of the city.
{4}Florinsky, Russia, vol I, pp. 421-422.
{5}An interesting commentary on the phenomenon of the modern Soviet officer, can be found in R. Gabriel, The New Red Legions: An Attitudinal Portrait of the Soviet Soldier (Westport, Conn., 1980), p. 86.
{6}See E. Tarle, Napoleon's Invasion of Russia, 1812 (New York, 1942).
{6a}This French army was much larger, and so the total number of guns and its disposal was greater, although the Russian pieces generally were able to fire heavier shells.
{7}Florinsky, Russia, vol. II, p. 1352.
{8}F. Fischer, Germany's Aims in the First World War (New York, 1967), p. 13; H. Holborn, A History of Modern Germany, (3 vols; New York, 1959-1969), vol. Ill, p. 375; D. Treadgold, Twentieth-Century Russia (Chicago, 1964), p. 103.
{9}N. Stone, "Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg," in The War Lords (London, 1976), p. 52.
{9a}During the "Time of Troubles," the Russian nobility turned against the Tsar and backed a pretender to the throne known as "the False Dimitri." Later, the Poles and the Swedes got into the act and a second pretender emerged. The Poles eventually were ejected by a national uprising led by Kuzma Minin and Dimiiri Pozharsky. The political situation in Russia was stabilized after a diet of nobles called the Zemskii Sobor elected Michael, the first of the Romanovs, as Tsar in 1613.

CHAPTER 1. PRE-WAR SOVIET DEFENSE PLANNING AND STRATEGY

1. R. Garthoff, Soviet Military Policy: A Historical Analysis (New York, 1966), p. 34. See also J. Erickson, The Soviet High Command: A Military-Political History 1918-1941 (London, 1962), p. 31.

2. For example, see G. Kennan, Decision to Intervene (Princeton, 1959).

{2a}Curiously, N S Khrushchev advocated a "territorial" concept for the army in 1963 shortly before his ouster

3. For a good account of Frunze's theories, see W. Jacobs, Frunze: The Soviet Clausewitz, 1885-1925 (The Hague, 1969).

4. V. Sokolovsky, Soviet Military Strategy, 3rd ed., trans. H. Scott (Stanford, 1957), pp. 121-122.

{4a}Trotsky was assassinated on orders from Stalin in Mexico City in August 1940.
{4b}It should be pointed out that, after 1941, the war on the eastern front did turn out to be a war of attrition, but the moral superiority over the Nazis, though real, was exceptionally narrow and was literally thrust into the hands of Stalin.

5. For a good description of the Soviet General Staff and its history, see H. and W. Scott, The Armed Forces of the USSR (Boulder, Colo., 1979), pp. 102-113.

6. M. Zakharov, "0 teorii glubokii operatsii," Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnat, Oct. 1970, pp. 13-14.

7. 50 let voomhennihk sil SSSR (Moscow, 1968), p. 215; 0. Isserson, "Razvitie teorii Sovetskogo operativnogo iskusstva v 30-e gody," Voenno-istoricheskii thurnal, March 1965, pp. 52-60.

8. M. Garder, A History of the Soviet Army (New York, 1966), p. 75.

9. Isserson, "Razvitie teorii operativnogo iskusstva v 30-e gody," Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, March 1965, p. 60.

10. L. Shapiro, "The Great Purge," in The Soviet Army, ed. B. H. Liddell Hart (London, 1956), p. 69.

11. H. Thomas, The Spanish Civil War (Hew York, 1961), p. 306.

12. K. Kolganov, Razvitie taktiki Sovetskoi Armii v grody Velikoi Otechest-vennoivoiny, 1941-1945 gg. (Moscow, 1958), pp. 106-107.

13. See Voprosy strategii i operativnogo iskusstva v Sovetskikh voennykh trudakh, ed. A. Siniaev (Moscow, 1965), pp. 613-615.

14. For a good overview of the Soviet economy on the eve of the war, see G. Kravchenko, Ekonomika SSSR v gody Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, 1941-1945 gg. (Moscow, 1970).

15. Ibid., pp. 74-75.

16. See J. Lundstrom, "The Soviet Mechanized Corps," in Panzer/oust, Sept./Oct. 1972, pp. 4-5. See also F. Halder, Kriegstagebuch (3 vols;

Stuttgart, 1962-1964), vol. II, p. 267; Liddell Hart, History of the Second World War (New York, 1970), pp. 158-159.

17. B. Mueller-Hillebrand, Das Heer, 1933-1945 (3 vols.; Frankfurt/M., 1954-1956), vol. II, p. 106.

{18-18a} J. Erickson, Soviet Command and Control: Past, Present and Future (unpublished manuscript supplied by the Center for Strategic Technology, i, Texas A & M University, Sept. 1980), p. 69; A. Seaton, The Russo-German War, 1941-1945 (New York, 1971), pp. 588-589.

It should be noted as an aside that some trucks being used in the Afghanistan operations by the Soviet Army apparently were manufactured in the Kama River truck factory, which was built with the help of the United States They are being so used despite promises by Soviet leaders that vehicles built there would not be used for military purposes

19. Kravchenko, Ekonomika SSSR, pp. 202-213; W. Boeike, Deutschlands Rustung im Zweiten Weltkrieg: Hitlers Conferenzen mil Albert Speer, 1942-1945 (Frankfurt/ M., 1969), pp. 22-25; A. Milward, The German Economy at War (London, 1965), pp. 28-53.

20. H. Guderian, "Russian Strategy in the War", in The Red Army, ed. B. H. Liddell Hart (New York, 1956), pp. 130-131; S. Westphal, Heer in Fessein: aus den Papieren des Stabchefs von Rommel, Kesselring und Rundstedt (Bonn, 1952), p. 80; J. Erickson, The Soviet High Command, pp. 576-577; W. Laqueur, Russia and Germany: A Century of Conflict (London, 1965), p. 261.

21. A. Samsonov, VeUkaia bitva pod Moskvoi, 1941-1942 (Moscow, 1958), p. 184.

22. Gehlen, The Service (New York, 1972), p. 26.

23. Siniaev, Voprosy strategii, pp.22, 112 ff.; Savkin, Osnovnyeprintsipi taktiki, pp. 59-60; Zakharov, "0 teorii glubokoi operatsii," Voenno-istoricheskii diurnal, Oct. 1970, pp. 13-20; S. Kozlov, 0 Sovetskoi voennoi nauke (Moscow, 1964), pp. 187-188.

24. A. dark, Barbarossa (New York, 1965), pp. 29-30; Erickson, The Soviet High Command, pp. 576-577. See also Ivanov, "Sovetskaia strategiia," Vsemirno-istoricheskaia pobeda Sovetskogo naroda, 1941-1945 gg.. ed. A. Grechko (Moscow, 1971), p. 208.

25. V. Sokolovsky, Soviet Military Strategy (New Jersey, 1963), p. 256; Platonov, Vtoraia mirovaia voina, 1939-1945 gg. (Moscow, 1958), p. 166.

26. N. Pavlenko, "Reshaiushchaia rol SSSR i ego vooruzhennykh sil v razgrome germanskogo imperializma," Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, Jan. 1960, p. 26.

27. Isserson, "Razvitie teorii operativnogo iskusstva," Voenno-istoricheskii ihurnal, March 1965, p. 52.

28. See Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig; issledovanie kanuna i pervogo etapa Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny (Moscow, 1971), pp. 129-130, 145.

29. S. Zaloga, "Organization of the Soviet Armored Force, 1939-1945," preliminary unpublished study 1981, pp. 2-4.

30. Ibid., p. 107. See also V. Vorobev, Boevoi put Sovetskikh Vooruzhennykh Sil (Moscow, 1960), p. 283; Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny Sovetskogo Soium, 1941-1945 gg. (6 vols.; Moscow, 1960-1965), vol. II, pp. 40-41; M. Dorofeev, "0 nekotorykh prichinakh neudachnykh deistvii mekhaniziro-vannykh korpusov v nachalnom periode Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny," Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, March 1964, pp. 34-36.

31. Isserson, "Razvitie teorii operativnogo iskusstva," Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, March 1965, p. 60; Hilger, The Incompatible Allies: A Memoir-History of German-Soviet Relations, 1918-1941 (New York, 1953), p. 330.

32. Zhukov, The Memoirs of Marshal Zhukov (London, 1971), pp. 183-186; M. Kazakov, Nad kartoi bylykh srazhenii (Moscow, 1971), pp. 51-56; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, pp. 138-144.

33. Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 141.

34. Ibid., pp. 138-139; Kazakov, Nad kartoi bylykh srazhenii, pp. 53-54.

35. Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 175; A. Fedorov, Aviatsiia v bilve pod Moskvoi (Moscow, 1971), pp. 15-17. See also Erickson, The,Soviet High Command, p. 581.

36. B. Kolchigin, "Mysli ob ispolzovanii armii prikrytiia v nachalnom periode Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny," Voenno-istoricheskii ihwnal, April 1961, p. 36.

37. Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 184.

38. See G. Komkov, "Sovetskie organy gosudarstvennoi bezopasnosti v gody ' Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny," Voprosy islorii. May 1965, p. 27.

39. Kazakov, Nad kartoi bylykh srazhenii, p. 55; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig p. 175.

40. Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 147.

41. Kazakov, Nad kartoi bylykh sraihenii, p. 57.

42. Memoirs, p. 185.

43. Kazakov, Nad kartoi bylykh srazhenii, pp. 58-59.

44. Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 186.

45. Ibid., p. 187; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig. p. 147; Kazakov, Nad kartoi bylykh srazhenii, p. 62.

46. B. Wolfe, Khrushchev and Stalin's Ghost (New York), p. 172; I. Deutscher, S(a/in; A Political Biography (London, 1949), pp. 471-472.

47. Memoirs, p. 248.

48. See V. Anfilov, Nachalo Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny (Moscow, 1962), pp. 41-43.

49. H. Picker, Hitlers Tischgesprache im Fuhrerhauptquartier (Stuttgart, 1965), p. 472. Using the USSR 1939 and 1959 census data, it can be calculated that approximately 3 million Soviet Jews perished in territories occupied by the Germans during the war. After the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact in August 1939, the word Jew disappeared from the Soviet press and nothing was written about the Nazi anti-Jewish excesses in Europe. There were, therefore, few Jews who saw the need to evacuate the western part of the Soviet Union even after 22 June 1941. See the articles by G. Aronson and A. Goldstein in Russian Jewry, 1917-1967 (New York, 1969), pp. 88-122, 171-208.

50. A. Hillgruber, Hitlers Strategic: Politik und Kriegfuhrung, 1940-1941 (Frankfurt/M., 1965), pp. 510-530; H. Greiner, Die oberste Wehrmacht-fuhrung, 1939-1943 (Wiesbaden), pp. 370-371.

51. For the text of the Commissar Decree see H.-A. Jacobsen, "The Kommissar-befehl and Mass Executions of Soviet Prisoners of War," in Anatomy of the SS State, ed. H. Krausnick (London, 1968), pp. 507-534.

52. The Trial of German Major War Criminals: Proceedings of the International Military Tribunal Sitting at Nuremberg Germany, part 4 (London: HMSO, 1946), pp. 17-18.

53. See Zhukov, Memoirs, pp. 232-233; and Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 186. See also June 22, 1941; Soviet Historians and the German Invasion, ed. V. Petrov (Columbia, S. C., 1968), p. 205; Kazakov, Nad kartoi bylykh srazhenni, p. 66.

54. For some details of Pavlov's arrest, see A. Eremenko, Na zapadnom napravlenni (Moscow, 1959), pp. 20-21.

55. Kolganov, Rawtie taktiki Sovetskoi Armii, pp. 320-321; Radzievskii, "Razvitie taktiki sukhoputnykh voisk," Vsemirno-istoricheskaia pobeda. p. 230.

56. Army Group Center captured Soviet documents in July 1941 that ordered the employment of this tactic by the front-line forces. See Second Army, la., "KTB Teil I," 15 July 1941, 16690/1, National Archives Microfilm Publication T-312, roll 1654, frame 000038 (hereafter cited as T-312/1654/00038).

This order was actually transmitted by Zhukov to the fronts on 27 June. See Zhukov, Memoirs, pp. 256-257.

57. G. Weinberg, "The Yelnia-Dorogobuzh Area of the Smolensk Oblast," in Soviet Partisans in World War II, ed. J. Armstrong (Madison, Wis., 1964), pp. 406-413; K. De Witt and W. Moll, "The Bryansk Area," ibid., p. 468; H, Bergen, "Encirclement and Annihilation of the Russian 32nd Cossack Division, 6 and 7 August, 1941," (unpublished study by Dept. of the Army, Office of the Chief of Military History, Washington, D.C., 1947), National Archives MS., D-075, p. 2.

58. H. Greiffenberg, "Battle of Moscow, 1941-1942," (unpublished study by Historical Division, HQ U.S. Army Europe, Foreign Military Studies Branch, 1948), National Archives MS., no. T-28, p. 91. Greiffenberg was the chief of staff for Army Group Center.

59. Ibid., p. 212.

60. Ibid., p. 231; Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 20; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 188; Lestev, "Doneseni upravleniia politpropagndy zapadnogo fronta glavnomu upravleniiu politpropagandy Krasnoi Armii o boevykh deistviiakh voisk fronta," Voprosy istorii, August 1961, pp. 98-99. See also S. Bialer, Stalin and His Generals (New York, 1969), p. 208; J. Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad: Stalin's War with Germany (London, 1975), vol. 1, p. 102.

61. SeeSOIet Vooruzhennykh SUSSSR, p. 235; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, pp. 114-115; B. Mueller-Hillebrand, dos Heer, vol. II, p. 107.

62. Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig. p. 115; Vorobev, Boevoiput, p. 207; Platonov, Vtoraia mirovaia voina, pp. 177-178.

63. See Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad, pp. 62-63. See also G. Blumentritt, "Commentary to the Battle of Moscow during the Winter of 1941-1942," (unpublished study by Historical Division, HQ U.S. Army Europe, Foreign Military Studies Branch, 1948), appendix to National Archives MS., T-28, pp. 292-293.

64. Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 196.

65. Ibid., p. 250; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 174. See also Panzer Group 2, la., "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 22 June 1941, 25034/1, T-313/80/7318385.

66. Platonov, Vtoraia mirovaia voina, p. 177.

67. Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 211.

68. Ibid., pp. 228-229; Guderian, "Russian Strategy in the War," in The Red Army, pp. 130-131.

69. Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 211.

70. Reports from Russian prisoners captured by the Second Army confirmed that Marshal Timoshenko was in personal command of the attacks against the southern flank of Army Group Center from the direction of Gomel. See Second Army, "KTB Teil I'," 16 July 1941, T-312/1654/0041.

71. On 15 July 1941 a curious event occurred that has not yet been adequately explained. On that date the German LIIIrd Army Corps discovered a map concealed in a Komsomol house on the Bobruisk-Rogachev road. This, map was described as a "high command war game exercise organized by Marshal Timoshenko." The map was dated February 1941 and showed that as the German armored units crossed the Dnepr north of Rogachev, they would be hit by a pincers attack from the southeast direction, from ZhIobin-Rogachev, and toward the southwest through Mogilev. The two groups were to converge at Bobruisk. The southeast wing of the attack was to have at least twenty rifle divisions and a cavalry corps. As will be seen, these forces described on the map were virtually identical to those actually encountered by the Germans in Timoshenko's counterattack in July. Curiously also, the BBC announced that same night that Timoshenko's counterattack had begun north of the Pripet Marshes, which would drive back the German armies. See LIIIrd Army Corps, "KTB I," 15 July 1941, T-313/1310/000086. The map episode was described in a U.S. Army Historical Division Special Staff Study "Peculiarities of Russian Warfare," MS T-22, June 1949, pp. 17-18. This particular document contains an English language version of Timoshenko's map. Extracts from this study were included in Department of the Army Pamphlet no. 20-230, "Russian Combat Methods in World War II," 1950, pp. 8-12. Who the German participants were who took part in the original Historical Division study are not known. Also, neither is known the whereabouts of the original Soviet map, if it still exists, nor who the Soviet participants in the war game were besides Marshal Timoshenko. It is also open to speculation how the map appeared at that location and why the Germans knew to search that particular house. This author believes the war game was held away from Moscow in February in order to keep the real operations plan a secret from all (including Pavlov) but a few senior officers. See also Kolganov, Razvitie taktiki Sovetskoi Armii, pp. 90-93; Krasilnikov, " strategicheskom rukovodstve v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny," Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, June 1960, p. 9.

72. Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 230.

73. Ibid., p. 218; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 174.

74. V. Zemkov, "Nekotorye voprosy sozdaniia i ispolzovanniia strategicheskikh reservov," Voenno-istoricheskii ^.hurnal, Oct. 1971, pp. 13-14.

75. Ibid,, p. 13; Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi vomy, vol. II, p. 35.

76. A. Seaton, Stalin as Warlord (London, 1976), pp. 101-103; J. Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad: Stalin's War with Germany (London, 1975), pp. 72-73.

77. Fedorov, Aviatsia v bitve pod Moskvoi, pp. 22-24; Istoriia vtoroi mirovoi vomy, 1939-1945 (12 vols.; Moscow, 1973-1980), vol. IV, pp. 35-36.

78. Wolfe, Khrushchev and Stalin's Ghost, pp. 172-174.

79. Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 230.

80. Ibid., p. 230.

81. Ibid., pp. 220-221.

82. See N. Voznesensky, The Economy of the V.S.S.R. during World War II (Washington, D.C., 1948), pp. 22-24. For more recent commentaries on the evacuation of Soviet industries, see "Tankovaia promyshlennost" in Sovetskaia voennaia entsiklopedia (8 vols., Moscow: Voennoe Izdatelstvo, J, i. 1976-1980), vol. VII, pp. 662-664; Istoriia vtoroi mirovoi voiny, 1939-1945 I (12 vols., Moscow: Voennoe Izdatelstvo, 1973-1980), vol. IV, pp. 149-162.

83. V. Kravtsov, "Krakh nemetsko-fashistskogo plana 'Barbarossa'," Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, Dec. 1968, p. 44. See also Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 217, and P Sokolov, "Opyt kommunisticheskoi partii po ispolzovaniiu liudskikh resursov v gody voiny," Vsemirno-istoricheskaia pobeda, p. 445.

84. See 50 let Vooruzhennykh Sil SSSR, pp. 277-278; Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 69.

85. W. Goerlitz, Generalfeldmarschall Keitel; Verbrecher oder Offwer? (Gottingen, 1961, p. 274).

CHAPTER 2 GERMAN PLANS FOR THE INVASION OF THE USSR

1. F. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. II, pp. 30-34.

2. For the background of the discussion of when Hitler decided to attack the Soviet Union see G. Weinberg, "Der deutsche Entschluss zum Angriff auf die Sowjetunion," Vierteljahrshefte fur Zeitgeschichte, vol. I (Oct. 1953), 301-315; H. Seraphim and A. Hillgruber, "Hitlers Entschluss zum Zngriff aufRussland," ibid., vol. II (July 1954), pp. 240-254; H. R. Trevor-Roper, "Hitlers Kriegsziele," ibid, vol. VIII (April 1960), pp. 123-133. For the Soviet point of view see Petrov, June 22, 1941: Soviet Historians and the German Invasion, p. 25.

3. B. Leach, German Strategy against Russia, 1939-1941 (Oxford, 1973), pp. 59-60; H. Greiner, Die oberste Wehrmachtfiihrung, pp. 292-293.

4. On July 24, 1960, the general staff Intelligence Department reckoned Soviet strength in western Russia at ninety rifle and thirty-three cavalry divisions, plus twenty-eight mechanized brigades. See Hillgruber, Hitlers Strategic, p. 213; H. Uhlig, "Das Einwirken Hitlers auf Planung und Fuhrung des Ostfeldzuges," Das Parlement, supplement, 16 March 1960, p. 165; B. Von Lossberg, 1m Wehrmachtfuhrungsstab: Bericht sines Generalstabsoffiuer (Hamburg, 1949), pp. 137-138; P. Leverkuehn, German Military Intelligence (London, 1954), p. 157; D. Proektor, Agressia i Katastrofa (Moscow, 1968), p. 178.

5. See Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. II, pp. 34, 37 for the Kinzel report. For the Greiffenberg-Feyerabend report see ibid., p. 39. See also Hillgruber, Hitlers Strategic, p. 220; Leach, German Strategy, p. 97; G. Buchheit, Soldatentum und Rebellion: die Tragodie der deutschen Wehrmacht (Rastatt, 1961), p. 285.

6. Uhlig, "Das Einwirken Hitlers," Das Parlement, supplement, 16 March 1960, p. 170.

7. For an interesting commentary on the Halder-Brauchitsch relationship, see H. Schall-Riacour, Aufstand und Gehorsam: Offaierstum und Genera/slab im Umbruch: Leben und Wirken von Generaloberst Fram. Holder, General-stabschef, 1938-1942 (Wiesbaden, 1972), p. 126.

8. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. II, p. 46.

9. Ibid., p. 50. 10. W. Warlimont, Inside Hitler's Headquarters, (New York, 1964), pp. 138-139.

11.0. Jacobsen, Erich Marcks: Soldat und Gelehrter (Gottingen, 1971), pp. 90 ft.

12. E. Marcks, "OperationsentwurfOst," August 1940,21-g-16/4q, T-84/271/ 902-923.

13. A. Philippi, "Das Pripjetproblem," Wehrwissenschaftliche Rundschau. ju supplement, March 1956, pp. 69-72.

14. J.F.C. Fuller, The Second World War, 1939-1945 (New York, 1949), pp. 116-117; G. Buchheit, Hitler der Feldherr (Rastatt, 1958), pp. 211-212. Buchheit describes the Marcks plan as similar in concept to Moltke's at Metz in 1870. According to him, Marcks intended for the Wehrmacht to stand on the defensive on a broad front between Riga and the upper Dnepr, while a strong southern force should push to the Don and then turn north, forcing the Soviets to fight a battle with reversed fronts.

15. See 0. Jacobsen, Erich Marcks, pp. 166-199.

16. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. II, p. 51; Hillgruber, Hitlers Strategic, p. 227. The official Soviet history of the war criticizes the Marcks plan for failing to take into consideration the danger to the flanks of the Central Army Group. See Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. I, p. 353.

17. K. Tippelskirch, Geschichte des Zweiten Weltkrieges (Bonn, 1956), p. 107.

18. See Kriegstagebuch des Oberkommandos der Wehrmacht (hereafter sited as Kriegstagebuch OKW), ed. P. Schramm (4 vols.; Frankfurt/m., 1961-1965), vol. I, pp. 266-267; "Protokol doprosa generala githerovskoi armii Waltera Warlimonta," Niurnbergskii protsess nad glavnymi nemetskimi voennymi prestupnikami (7 vols; Moscow, 1957-1961), vol. II, p. 634; A. Philippi and F. Heim, Der Feldwg gegen Sowjetrussland. 1941 bis 1945 (Stuttgart, 1962), p. 29,

19. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. 1, p. 82; Greiner, Die oberste Wehrmacht-fuhrung, p. 322; Uhlig, "Das Einwirken Hitlers," Das Parlement, supplement, 16 March 1960, p. 173; Philippi and Heim, Der Feldwg, p. 43;

Hillgruber, Hitlers Strategic, pp. 222 n., 230. For an English translation of the Lossberg study, see Leach, German Strategy, pp. 255-262.

20. There are those, however, who consider Moltke's teachings no longer relevant in the age of modern warfare. See 0. Jacobsen, Erich Marcks. pp. 97-98.

21. G. Thomas, "Die wehrwirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen einer Operation im Osten," In Geschichte der deutschen Wehr-und Rustungswirtschaft, 1918-1945. ed. W. Birkenfeld (Boppard am Rhein, 1966), pp. 266-267; Philippi and Heim, Der Feldwg, p. 43; Proektor, Agressia i Katastrofa, p. 195. See also R. Suchenwirth, Command and Leadership in the German Air Force (New York, 1970), pp. 169-170.

22. W. Goerlitz, Paulus and Stalingrad (New York, 1963), pp. 24-25.

23. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. II, p. 90.

24. Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal (42 vols.; Nuremberg, 1947-1949), vol. VII, pp. 253-261; "Zaiavlenie Paulusa Sovetskomu Pravitelstvu," Niurnbergskii protsess, vol. II, pp. 594-597; Philippi and Heim, Der Feldwg, pp. 30-31.

25. See Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. II, p. 176; Buchheit, Hitler der Feldherr, p. 212.

26. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. II, pp. 266-267.

27. H. Guderian, Power Leader (London, 1952), pp. 142-143; Uhlig, "Das Einwirken Hitlers," Das Parlement, supplement, 16 March 1960, pp. 172-173.

{27a}The 1939 Soviet census put the population of the USSR at 170 million. Since half of the Soviet population was under twenty, the maximum number of men of military age was reckoned in 1941 at 17 million.

28. R. Gehlen, The Service, p. 50.

29. Hillgruber, Hitlers Strategic, p. 214. This author notes that the Germans were not the only ones who underestimated the military potential of the USSR. The British and the American strategic planners shared in many respects the German viewpoint about the Red Army.

{29a}At this time Erich von Manstein was chief of staff of von Rundstedt's Army Group "A". He was not allowed by the OKH later to take part in the planning for Barbarossa.

30. B. H. Liddell Hart, Strategy (New York, 1967), pp. 241-243; Leach, German Strategy, pp. 120-121.

31. See P. Bor, Gesprdche mil Holder (Wiesbaden, 1950), p. 75.

32. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, pp. 208-209; Trial of the Major War Criminals vol. XXVIII, 1799-PS, pp. 393-395.

33. See Philippi, "Das Pripjetproblem," Wehrwissenschaftliche Rundshau, supplement, March 1956, p. 73; OKH/Gen.Stb.d.H./Op.abt, (I), 15 Feb. 1941 H22/219, T-78/335/6291500.

34. The exact words that Hitler used have not been preserved and, curiously enough, Halder does not include a transcript of this conference in his war diary. A paraphrase of Hitler's comments are, however, to be found in the Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 209. The comment in question reads: "Der Flihrer erklart sich mit den vorgetragenen operativen Absichten einver-standen. ..."

35. Philippi and Heim, DerFeldzug, p. 67; Hillgruber, Hitlers Strategic, pp. 366-367; Buchheit, Hitler der Feldherr, p. 169; Goerlitz, Paulus and Stalingrad, p. 107.

36. For the importance of the south of the Soviet Union in German economic planning, see Thomas, "Die wehrwirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen," Geschichte der deutschen Wehr-und Rustungswirtschaft, pp. 515-532; G. Kravchenko, Ekonomika SSSR v gody Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, p. 40. See also G. Blau, "The German Campaign in Russia; Planning and Operations, 1940-1942" (Department of the Army Pamphlet no. 20-261a, March 1955), p. 174.

37. A. Milward, The German Economy at War, pp. 12-13. For the vicissitudes in Gkman-Soviet economic cooperation, see Hilger, The Incompatible Allies, pp. 321-327; J. Schnurre, "Second Memorandum on the Status of German-Soviet Trade Relations," 15 May 1941, Nay-Soviet Relations, 1939-1941 (Washington, 1948), p. 252. Schnurre was the head of the Economic Policy Division IV (Eastern Europe) of the Reich Foreign Ministry.

38. See Thomas, "Die wehrwirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen," Geschichte der deutschen Wehr-und Rustungswirtschaft, pp. 243-245, 529; Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, pp. 257-258.

39. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. II, p. 454. Here, in absolute terms, Halder refused to allow economic considerations to interfere with any military operations.

40. Goerlitz, Paulus and Stalingrad, pp. 99-120.

41. Philippi and Heim, Der Feldwg, p. 35.

42. In point of fact, on paper a Soviet rifle division was comparable to the German infantry division in numerical strength, but actually had greater overall firepower. See K. Kolganov, Razvitie taktiki sovetskoi armii v gody Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, p. 68.

43. Goerlitz, Paulus and Stalingrad, p. 120.

44. Philippi and Heim, Der Feldwg, pp. 35-36.

45. Hitlers Weisungen fur die Kriegfuhrung, ed. W. Hubatsch (Frankfurt/M., 1962), pp. 84-88; Hitler's War Directives, ed. H. R. Trevor-Roper (London, 1964), pp. 49-52.

46. See Leach, German Strategy, pp. 121.

47. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. II, pp. 463-469.

48. Ibid., p. 45; Philippi, "Das Pripjetproblem," Wehrwissenschaftliche Rundshau, supplement, March 1956, p. 17; Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 1137.

49. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. 11, p. 267 n.; Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 235; Greiner, Die oberste Wehrmachtfuhrung, p. 386.

50. See Uhlig, "Das Einwirken Hitlers," Das Parlement, supplement, 16 March 1960, p. 178. In a letter to Uhlig in 1952 Heusinger stated that it was his impression that from the very start Army Group South was too weak to carry out its mission.

51. See Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 297.

52. Within a month these figures were raised to 121 rifle and 25 cavalry divisions, plus 32 mechanized brigades. Within two months the general staff increased the estimate again to 171 rifle and 36 cavalry divisions, plus 40 mechanized brigades. See "Sonderakte Jodi," Operative Entscheidungen, 1941, "Barbarossa," "Aniage 3a.," Op. abt. IN Mr. 050/41, "Angaben uber die Rote Armee. Stand 15.1.41," Bundesarchiv-Militararchiv, Freiburg (hereafter cited as BA-MA), RW 4/v. 78 (OKW/1570); Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 353; Greiner, Die oberste Wehrmachtfuhrung, p. 386.

53. Trial of the Major War Criminals, vol. XXVI, 873-PS, pp. 399-401; N. Rich, Hitler's War Aims: Ideology, the Nazi State and the Course of Expansion (New York, 1973), p. 210.

54. Tippelskirch, Geschichte des Zweiten Weltkrieges, p. 175.

55. B. H. Liddell Hart, The Other Side of the Hill (London, 1951), p. 251;

Hillgruber, Hitlers Strategic, pp. 505-507; A. Kesselring, The Memoirs of Field Marshal Kesselring (London, 1953), p. 85; Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 245; Buchheit, Hitler der Feldherr, p. 218.

56. SeeG. Just, Alfred Jodi; Soldat ohne Furcht und Tadel (Hannover, 1971),p. 97.

57. Philippi and Heim, Der Feldwg, p. 47.

58. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. II, pp. 351, 353; Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. 1, pp. 274-276; Goerlitz, Generalfetdmarschall Keilel: Verbrecher order Offwer?, p. 246; Gehlen, The Service, p. 26; A. Heusinger, Befehl im Widerstreit (Tubingen, 1950), p. 130; Kesselring, Memoirs, pp. 86-87; E. Manstein, Verlorene Siege (Frankfurt/M., 1969), p. 179; Picker, Hitlers Tischgesprache, pp. 486-487.

59. Nazi-Soviet Relations, p. 252.

60. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. II, p. 426; W. Haupt, Heeresgruppe Mitte (Dorheim, 1968), p. 21.

61. j. Bengtson, Nazi War Aims (Rock Island, 111., 1962), pp. 7, 21.

62. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. 1, pp. 257-258; Greiner, Die oberste Wehrmachtfuhrung, pp. 343-344; G. Reitlinger, The House Built on Sand (New York, 1960), p. 64; F. Hinsley, Hitler's Strategy (Cambridge, Mass., 1951), pp. 130-131.

63. Hitler als Feldherr, pp. 35-37. See also P. Kleist, Zwischen Hitler und Stalin, 1939-1945 (Bonn, 1950), p. 128; "Adolf Hitler to the Regent of Hungary," Documents on German Foreign Policy (Washington, 1962), Series D, XII, no. 661, pp. 1070-1071.

64. Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 227; Kravchenko, Ekonomika SSSR v gody voiny, p. 91.

65. Speer, Inside the Third Reich, pp. 53-54; Dallin, German Rule in Russia p 20 ff.; Milward, The German Economy at War. p. 131.

66. G. Ritter, The German Resistance: Carl Goerdeler's Struggle against Tyranny (New York, 1958), p. 152; F. von Schlabrendorff, Of/were gegen Hitler (Frankfurt/M., 1959), pp. 54-61; Schall-Riacour, Aufstand und Gehorsam, pp. 9-10, 96; R. O'Neill, The German Army and the Nazi Party 1933-1939 (London, 1966), pp. 162-163.

CHAPTER 3. RACE TO THE DNEPR

1. Haupt, Heeresgruppe Mitle, p. 21; Philippi and Heim, Der Feldwg, p. 52;

H. Pottgiesser, Die deulsche Reichsbahn im Ostfeldwg, 1939-1944 (Neckargemund, 1960), pp. 21-23.

2. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 40; R. Hoffman and A. Toppe, "Consumption and Attrition Rates Attendant to the Operations of German Army Group Center, June 22-December 31, 1941," (unpublished study by Historical Division, HQ U.S. Army, Europe, Foreign Military Studies Branch, 1953), National Archives MS., no. P-190, pp. 68-69; "21 Juni: Zahlenmassige Obersicht liber die Verteilung der deutschen Divisionen und Heerestruppen," in Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 1286.

3. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 7.

4. Ibid., vol. II, p. 466; Guderian, Panzer Leader, pp. 149-150; H. Hoth, Panzer-Operationen: die Panzergruppe 3 und der operative Gedanke der deutschen Filhrung, Sommer 1941 (Heidelberg, 1956), p. 48.

5. Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 149; Hoth, Panzer-Operationen, p. 49 and n.

6. For an interesting commentary on this, see K. Macksey, Kesselring: the Making of the Luftwaffe (New York, 178), p. 197.

7. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 5-8; Guderian, Panwr Leader, p. 148;

Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 52.

8. Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. 11, pp. 29-30; SSSR v Velikoi Olechestvennoi voine, 1941-1945; kratkaia khronika (Moscow, 1970), p. 18;

KPSS o vooruzhennykh silakh Sovetskogo Soiuw; sbornik documentov, 1917-1958, ed. V. Malin (Moscow, 1958), p. 357; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, pp. 273-274.

9. E. Rohricht, Problems der Kesseischlacht; dargestellt an Einkreisungs-Opera-tionen im Zweiten Weltkrieg (Karlsruhe, 1958), p. 28.

10. Hofmann and Toppe, "Consumption and Attrition Rates of Army Group Center," National Archives MS., no. P-190, pp. 68-69; Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 143.

11. L. Addington, The Blitzkrieg Era and the German General Staff, 1865-1941 (New Brunswick, N.J., 1971), p. 189; Liddell Hart, The Other Side of the Hill, pp. 174-175. Liddell Hart was for many years the leading advocate of tracked versus wheeled transport vehicles and he believed that the German failure to heed this warning was one of the main reasons for their defeat in Russia.

12. 9th Army, la., "KTB-Ostfeldzug-Nr. 2 -Russland,' " 22 June 1941, 14855/2, T-312/281/7841883;VHth Army Corps, la., "KTB Nr. 5b," 22-24 June 1941, 17263/1, T-314/346/000612-000620; Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 411.

13. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 5.

14. Panzer Group 2, "KTB I," 25 June 1941, T-313/80/7318422. See also G. Fischer, Soviet Opposition to Stalin: A Case Study in World War II (Cambridge, Mass., 1952), pp. 4-5.

15. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 417.

16. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 8-9.

17. Ibid., p. 10; vol. II, p. 267.

18. Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, pp. 215-216. See also Hoth, Panzer-Operationen, pp. 53-57.

19. Hoth, Panzer-Operationen, p. 60.

20. Ibid., p. 62.

21. Ibid., p. 61-63.

22. Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, pp. 222-223.

23. Dorofeev, "0 nekotorykh prichinakh neudachnykh deistvii mekhanizirovan-nykh korpusov," Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, March 1964, p. 36; Voiska protivovozdushnoi oborony strany, ed. M. Anaimanovich (Moscow, 1968), pp. 69-78.

24. Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, pp. 266-268.

25. Eremenko, Na zapadnom napravlenii, p. 17.

26. Ninth Army, "KTB 2," 27 June 1941, T-312/281/7841939.

27. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 14. See also Field Marshal von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 25-26 June 1941, 21-g-16/4P-5, T-84/271/ 000297-0003000.

28. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 10, 15.

29. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 420; Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 15.

30. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, p. 22.

{30a}Guderian's political reputation suffered even more after Stauffenberg's attempt to kill Hitler with a bomb on July 20, 1944 On July 29, 1944, Guderian signed an order directing all general staff officers to either become Nazi "Leadership Officers" or ask for a transfer. Many officers never forgave Guderian for this act, which they considered a betrayal of the army.

31. See A. Turney, Disaster at Moscow: von Bock's Campaigns, 1941-1942 (Albuquerque, 1970), p. 5; U. von Hassell, The von Hassell Diaries. 1938-1944: the Story of the Forces against Hitler inside Germany (New York, 1947), p. 130. See also W. Goerlitz, The German General Staff; its History and Structure, 1657-1945 (London, 1953), p. 476; J. W. Wheeler-Bennett, The Nemesis of Power: The German Army in Politics, 1918-1945 (London, 1953), pp. 678-680.

32. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 24-25.

33. Guderian, Panzer Leader, pp. 166-167.

34. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 13; Kesselring, Memoirs, p. 90; B. Telpukhovskii, Velikaia Otechestvennaia voina Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1941-1945; kratkii ocherk (Moscow, 1959), p. 51; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, pp. 275-276.

35. Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, pp. 224, 268; Platonov, Vtoraia mirovaia voina, p. 187.

36. J. Lemelsen, 29. Division (Bad Nauheim, 1960), p. 109; J. Baritz, "Belorussia and the Kremlin's Strategic Plans," Belorussian Review, vol. VI (1958), p. 87.

37. Lemelsen, 29. Division, pp. 114-115.

38. See Ninth Army, "KTB 2, "27 June 1941, T-312/281/7841937-7841939; Vth Army Corps, la., "KTB 2, Nr. I," 28-29 June 1941, 17647/1, T-314/245/ 000073-000080; Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 30; G. Blumentritt, "Moscow," The Fatal Decisions, ed. S. Friedin and W. Richardson (New York, 1956), p. 57; Panzer Group 2, "KTB I," vol. I, 29 June 1941, T-313/90/7318461-7318462.

39. SSSR v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine, p. 25; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 365.

40. Compare Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 160 and Panzer Group 2, "KTB I," vol. I, 30 June 1941, T-313/80/7318469-7318470.

41. K. Macksey, Guderian Creator of the Blitzkrieg (New York, 1976), p. 119.

42. Panzer Group 2, "KTB I," vol. I, 2 July 1941, T-313/80/7318492.

43. See Guderian, Panzer Leader, pp. 161-162.

44. Panzer Group 2, "KTB I," vol. 1, 4 July 1941, T-313/80/7318511.

45. See Wheeler-Bennett, The Nemesis of Power, pp. 647 f. See also Guderian, Panzer Leader, pp. 269-370.

{45a}Ironically, it was Guderian who informed Hitler in July 1944 aboul von Kluge's intention to negotiate a separate peace with the Western Allies Thus exposed, the field marshal was forced to commit suicide in August of that year

46. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 23; Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, pp. 422-423.

47. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 24-25.

48. Panzer Group 2, "KTB I," vol. 1, 3 July 1941, T-313/80/7318500.

49. Ibid., 7 July 1941, 7318539.

50. Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, pp. 392-393.

51. Panzer Group 2, "KTB I," vol. I, 7 July 1941, T-313/80/7318542-7318600.

52. See Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, pp. 370.

53. Panzer Group 2, "KTB I," vol. I, 11 July 1941, T-313/80/731591.

54. Ibid., 7 July 1941, 7318542.

55. Panzer Group 2, "KTB I," 8 July 1941, vol. I, T-313/80/7318558-7318559;

Second Army, "KTB I," 8-12 July 1941, T-312/1654/000016-000021. See also, Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 40, 43, 48; Geschichte der 3. Panzer-Division; Berlin-Brandenburg, 1933-1945 (Berlin, 1967); pp. 128-129; 0. Munzel, Panzer Taktik; Raids gepanzerter Verbandeim Ostfeld-Wg, 1941-1942 (Neckargemiind, 1959), pp. 96-97; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, pp. 392-393.

56. Panzer Group 2, "KTB I," 8 July 1941, vol. I, T-313/80/7318550; Ninth Army, "KTB 2," 30 June 1941, T-312/281/7841954.

57. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 29.

58. Hoth, Panzer-Operationen, p. 72; Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 28-29.

59. Hoth, Panzer-Operationen, p. 74.

60. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 34.

61. Ibid., pp. 42-43.

62. I. Zhukov, Liudi 40-x godov, liudi v brone (Moscow, 1969), pp. 43-46.

63. V. Butkov, "Kontrudar 5-go mekhanizirovannogo korpusa na lepelskom nepravlennii (6-11 iiulia, 1941 goda)," Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, Sept. 1971, pp. 61-64; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, pp. 392-393.

64. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 55; Hoth, Panzer-Operationen, p. 79.

65. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 67; Hoth, Panzer-Operationen, p. 86.

66. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 73.

67. Krausnick, Anatomy of the SS State, pp. 521-522; S. Datner, Crimes against POWs: Responsibility of the Wehrmacht (Warsaw, 1964), p. 78.

68. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, PP. 38-39.

69. Ibid., p. 52.

70. Ibid., pp. 53-54.

{71}See W. Nehring, Die Geschichte der deutschen Panzerwaffe, 1916 bis 1945 (Berlin, 1969), pp. 234, 247; Halder, Hitter als Feldherr, pp. 37-38; Blumen-tritt, "Moscow," The Fatal Decisions, p. 73. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. !II, p. 65. Ibid., pp. 64-75, 68. Ibid., p. 82.
{72}H. Guderian, "Flank Defense in Far Reaching Operations," (unpublished study by Historical Division, HQ U.S. National Archives MS., no. T-l 1 pp 70-71.
{73}Lemelsen, 29. Division, p. 120.
{74}Ibid., p. 122; M. Lukin, "V Smolenskom srazhenii," Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, July 1979, p. 49. Lemelsen, 29. Division, p. 125.
{75}Lukin, "V Smolenskom srazhenii," Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, July 1979 p. 50.
{76}Lemelsen, 29. Division, pp. 126-135.
{77}Hoth, Panzer-Operationen, p. 87.
{78}Ibid., pp. 92-93.
{80}Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, pp. 455-456.
{81}Hoth, Panzer-Operationen, p. 97; Panzer Group 2, "KTB I," vol. I, 18 July 1941, T-313/80/7318667-7318668.
{82}10th Panzer Division, la., "KTB Nr. 5," 16 July 1941, 22340/1, T-315/561/000325; Eremenko, Na wpadnom napravlenii, pp. 56-47.
{83}10th Panzer Division, la., "KTB Nr. 5," 19 July 1941, T-315/561/000353.
{84}Ibid., 19 July 1941,000367.
{85}See 10th Panzer Division, "KTB Nr. 5," 20 July 1941, T-315/561/000381. See also Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 190; 10th Panzer Division, "KTB Nr. 5," 22 July 1941, T-315/561/000409.
{86}See 10th Panzer Division, "KTB Nr. 5," 21 July 1941, T-315/561/000394. Panzer Group 2, "KTB I," vol. I, 20 July 1941, T-313/80/7318689.

CHAPTER 4. BATTLES FOR THE UPPER DNEPR

1. Cheremukhin, "Nasmolensko-moskovskom strategicheskom napravlenii," Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, Oct. 1966, p. 3.

2. Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 384.

3. Zhukov, Memoirs, pp. 251-252.

4. Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 384.

5. Zhukov, Memoirs, pp. 255-256.

6. Eremenko, Na wpadnom napravlenii, p. 46.

7. Ibid., p. 65; A. Gorbatov, Years off My Life (New York, 1964), pp. 157-165.

8. Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 65; Eremenko, Na wpadnom napravlenii, pp. 46-47.

9. Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 448.

10. Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 274.

11. Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 35.

12. "Tankovaia promyshlennost' " in Sovetskaia voennskaia enlsiklopediia, vol. VII, pp. 662-664.

13. Zaioga, "Organization of the Soviet Armored Force, 1939-1945," p. 5;

Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad, pp. 132-134.

14. Istoriia vtoroi mirovoi voiny, vol. IV, pp. 283-284.

15. J. Sloan, "Soviet Units in World War II: New Data from Soviet Sources," in History Numbers and War, vol. 1, no. 3, Fall 1977, pp. 163-164; Zaioga, "Organization of the Soviet Armored Forces," pp. 5-6.

16. Kriegstagebuch OK.W, vol. I, p. 428. See also Rohricht, Probleme der Kessel-schlacht, pp. 46-59 and Philippi, "Das Pripjetproblem," IVehrwissenschaft-liche Rundshau, supplement March 1956, pp. 41-42; Uhlig, "Das Einwirken Hitlers," Das Parlement, supplement, 23 March, 1960, p. 185.

17. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 584; Philippi, "Das Pripjetproblem," Wehrwissenschaftliche Rundshau, supplement, March 1956, p. 51.

18. Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, pp. 449-450.

19. Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 68. See Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr, I," vol. I, 14 July 1941, T-313/80/7318622.

20. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 16 July 1941, T-313/80/7318639-7318640; Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 176; Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 68.

21. Hoth, Panzer-Operationen, p. 97.

22. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 20 July 1941, T-313/80/7318684.

23. P. 179.

24. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," 21 July 1941, T-313/80/7318699.

25. Ibid., 7318738; Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 182.

26. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 25 July 1941, T-313/80/7318699; 0. Weidinger, Division Das Reich (Osnabruck, 1969), pp. 427-434.

27. Zhukov, Memoirs, p: 274; SSSR v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine, p. 47.

28. Cheremukhin, "Na smolensko-moskovskom strategicheskom napravlenii, " Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, Oct. 1966, pp. 31-39.

29. Zhukov, Memoirs, pp. 274-275; Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 72; K. K. Rokossovskii, Soldatskii dolg (Moscow, 1968), pp. 31-39;

Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 19 July 1941, T-84/271/000378-000379, 000385.

30. Hoth, Pamer-Operationen, pp. 100-101; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 461; Eremenko, Na zapadnom napravlenii, p. 65.

31. Memoirs, pp. 92-93.

32. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. 1, pp. 16-17 July 1941, T-313/80/ 7318639-7318657.

33. Second Army, "KTB Teil I," 16 July 1941, T-312/1654/000041.

34. Ibid., 000046-000049. See also Zhilin, Vazhneishie operatsii Velikoli Otechestvennoi voiny, 1941-1945gg. (Moscow, 1956), pp. 85-86.

35. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 18-19 July 1941, T-84/271/000342-000344.

36. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 19 July 1941, T-313/80/7318678.

37. Second Army, "KTB Teil I," 21 July 1941, T-313/1654/000057.

38. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 21 July 1941, T-313/80/7318698-7318699.

39. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 21 July 1941, T-84/271/000350.

40. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. 1, 22 July 1941, T-313/80/7318708.

41. Second Army, "KTB Teil I," 24-26 July 1941, T-312/1654/000070-0074; Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 24 July 1941, T-84/271/000354.

42. Second Army, "KTB Teil I," 28 July 1941, T-312/1654/000074-000077.

43. Ibid., 30 July 1941, 000079-000080.

44. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 13 July 1941, T-84/271/000327.

45. Ibid., 000328.

46. For a good commentary on combat conditions in the area south of Lake Ilmen see C. W. Sydnor, Soldiers of Destruction: The SS Death's Head Division, 1933-1945 (Princeton, 1977), pp. 184-207.

47. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 13 July 1941, T-84/271/000333.

48. Hoth, Panzer-Operationen, p. 99.

49. Panzer Group 3, la., "KTB Nr. I," 19-20 July 1941, 14837/2, T-313/225/ 7489084-7489093.

50. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, pp. 436-437.

51. Panzer Group 3, "KTB Nr. I," 20 July 1941, T-313/225/7489093; Hoth, Panwr-Operationen, p. 98.

52. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. III, p. 99.

53. Panzer- Opera tionen, p. 99.

54. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 21 July 1941, T-84/271/000350. See also von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten-Vorbereitungszeit," 21 May and 4 June 1941, BA-MA, 22/7, pp. 18-19, 20-21 and Turney, Disaster at Moscow, pp. 54-55.

55. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 100. See also Halder, Hitler als Feldherr, p. 39.

56. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 24 July 1941, T-84/271/000354-000355.

57. Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 182.

58. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 27 July 1941, T-84/271/000375;

Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 29 July 1941, T-313/80/7318788.

59. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 27 July 1941, T-84/271/000375.

60. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," 20 July 1941, T-313/80/7318685.

61. Ibid., 7318720, 7318738.

62. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 28 July 1941, T-84/271/000377.

63. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 14 July 1941, T-313/80/7318619.

64. See von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 9 July 1941, T-84/271/000323-000324; Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 28 June 1941, T-313/80/ 7318453.

65. Ouderian, Panzer Leader, p. 185.

CHAPTER 5. THE PAUSE OF ARMY GROUP CENTER

1. 10th Panzer Division, "KTB Nr. 5," 24-25 July 1941, T-315/561/000423-000427. See also P. Carrell, Hitler's War on Russia: The Story of the German Defeat in the East (London, 1964), pp. 93-97; T. Shabad, Geography of the U.S.S.R.; a Regional Survey (New York, 1951), p. 134.

2. 10th Panzer Division, "KTB Nr. 5," 25 July 1941, T-315/561/000430.

3. See ibid., 26 July 1941, 000437-000439.

4. IXth Army Corps, la., "KTB 7," 27 July 1941, 19067/1, T-314/405/000561-000565.

5. Ibid., 28 July 1941, 000567-000568; Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I, vol. I," 25 July 1941, T-313/80/7318744.

6. Eremenko, Na zapadnom napravlenii, p. 62.

7. See von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 5 August 1941, T-84/271/ 000389-000390.

8. IXth Army Corps, "KTB 7," 28-29 July 1941, T-314/405/000569-000571.

9. 10th Panzer Division, "KTB Nr. 5," 30 July 1941, T-315/561/000468.

10. IXth Army Corps, "KTB 7," 30 July 1941, T-313/405/000573.

11. IXth Army Corps, "KTB 7," 31 July 1941, T-313/405/000578; Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. 1, 28 July 1941, T-313/80/7318781.

12. See XXth Army Corps, la., "KTB I," 6-8 Aug. 1941, 20178/1, T-314/651/000178-000180; IXth Army Corps, "Aniage II, KTB 7," 8 July 1941, 19067/3, T-314/406/000260.

13. XXth Army Corps, "KTB I," 11 Aug. 1941, T-314/651/000188.

14. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 12 August 1941, T-84/271/000403-000404. See also G. Kleinfeld and L. Tambs, Hitler's Spanish Legion: The Blue Division in Russia (Carbondale, 111., 1979), pp. 46-48.

15. H. Krausnick, "The Persecution of the Jews," Anatomy of the SS State, p. 64.

16. XXth Army Corps, "KTB I," 13 Aug. 1941, T-314/651/000196-000198.

17. Ibid., 14 August 1941, 000198.

18. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 147.

19. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. 1, 4 Aug. 1941, T-313/80/7318854.

20. See Panzer Leader, p. 190.

21. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 14 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000405-000406.

22. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 177.

23. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 14 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000406.

24. Ibid., 15 Aug. 1941, 000407; Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 14 Aug. 1941, T-313/80/7318979-7318980. See also Panzer Leader, pp. 194-195.

25. IXth Army Corps, "KTB 7," 15-16 Aug. 1941, T-314/405/000623-000625.

26. XXth Army Corps, "KTB I," 17 Aug. 1941, T-314/651/000206.

27. Ibid., 000208; IXth Army Corps, "KTB 7," 18 Aug. 1941, T-314/405/ 000627-000628.

28. XXth Army Corps, "KTB I," 20 Aug. 1941, T-314/651/000216-000218.

29. IXth Army Corps, "KTB 7," 22 Aug. 1941, T-314/405/000636.

30. See Fourth Army, "KTB Nr. 9," 22Aug. 1941, 13616/1, T-312/143/681631.

31. IXth Army Corps, "KTB 7," 23-26 Aug. 1941, T-314/405/000638-000644.

32. Ibid., 27-28 Aug. 1941, 000646; Fourth Army, "KTB Nr. 9." 26-27 Aug. 1941, T-312/143/681636-681640.

33. "AOK 4 der Oberbefehlshaber, A.H. Qu., an Heeresgruppe Mitte," Fourth Army, la., "Aniagen A, KTB Nr. 9," 28 Aug. 1941, BA-MA 13715/1.

34. C. Gallenkamp, "Nachtkampfe," (unpublished study by Historical Division, HQ U.S. Army Europe, Foreign Military Studies Branch, 1950), National Archives MS, no. P-054b, Project 40, pp. 14-18.

35. "Personliche Eindrucke im Jelnja-Bogen (25.8 und Nacht 25./26.8 1941)," Fourth Army," Aniagen A, KTB Nr. 9," 27 Aug. 1941, BA-MA 13715/1;

Fourth Army, "KTB Nr. 9," 26 Aug. 1941, T-312/143/681634-681635.

36. Fourth Army, "KTB Nr. 9," 26 Aug. 1941, T-312/143/681635.

37. Zhukov, Memoirs, pp. 287-289.

38. Ibid., p. 391.

39. Ibid., pp. 292-293.

40. G. Khoroshilov and A. Bazhenov, "Eininskaia nastupatelnaia operatsiia 1941 g.," Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, Sept. 1974, pp. 75-81.

41. IXth Army Corps, "KTB 7," 30-31 Aug. 1941, T-314/405/000647-000650.

42. IXth Army Corps, "Aniage II, KTB 7," 2 Sept. 1941, T-314/406/000767.

43. IXth Army Corps, "KTB 7," 31 Aug. 1941, T-314/405/000569-000571;

XXth Army Corps, "KTB I," 31 Aug. 1941, T-314/651/000234.

44. XXth Army Corps, "KTB I," 2 Sept. 1941, T-314/651/000238.

45. Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 291.

46. Fourth Army, "KTB Nr. 9," 2 Sept. 1941, T-312/143/681686-681687;

"Entwicklung der Lage, die zur Aufgabe des Jelnja-Bogens fuhrte, in Einzel-heiten," Fourth Army, "Aniagen A, KTB Nr. 9," 9 Sept. 1941, BA-MA 13715/2, p. 7.

47. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 2 Sept. 1941, T-84/271/000438;

Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 211-212.

48. IXth Army Corps, "KTB 7," 2-3 Sept. 1941, T-314/405/000656-000658;

XXth Army Corps, "KTB I," 3 Sept. 1941, T-314/651/000242-000243.

49. IXth Army Corps, "KTB 7," 5-6 Sept. 1941, T-314/405/000662-000663;

XXth Army Corps, "KTB I," 4 Sept. 1941, T-314/651/000250.

50. Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 293.

51. Ibid.

52. "Bericht iiber die Frontfahrt des O.B. vom 30.8.41.," Fourth Army, "Aniagen A, KTB Nr. 9," 30 Aug. 1941, BA-MA 13715/2. Here are listed the casualties up to August 30 of the three army corps of the Fourth Army which were not actually in the salient at that time, although some of their divisions had fought there. For reports on the losses of various units actually within the salient for the better part of the time from late July to early September see "Entwicklung der Lage, die zur Aufgabe des Jelnja-Bogens fuhrte, in Einzelheiten," ibid., 9 Sept. 1941; "Gen Kdo. IX. AK, Abt. IIa., dem AOK 4," ibid., 4 Sept. 1941; "Der Kommandierende General des IX. AK an der 4. Armee, Herrn Generalfeldmarschall v. Kluge, 7 Sept. 1941," ibid.; "Kurzer Bericht liber den Einsatz der 263. I.D. im Jelnja-Bogen," ibid., 6 Sept. 1941. The 263rd Infantry Division was in the salient twelve days from 17-29 August and lost 49 officers and 1,167 men. The XLVIth Panzer Corps lost 3,615 men in the salient between 22 July and 3 August, or about three hundred men per day. See Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 5 Aug. 1941, T-313/80/7318770. See also H. Geyer, dos IX. Armeekorps im Ostfeldzug. 1941 (Neckargemiind, 1969), p. 201.

53. See A. Seaton, The Battle for Moscow, 1941-1942 (London, 1971), p. 169;

Haupt, Heeresgruppe Mitte, pp. 106-107.

54. Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 293.

55. Second Army, "KTB Teil I," 28 July 1941, T-312/1654/000077.

56. Guderian, Panzer Leader, pp. 184-185; W. Meyer-Detring, Die 137. Infanteriedivision; im Mittelabschnitt der Ostfront (Petzenkuchen, Austria, 1962), p. 52.

57. Meyer-Detring, Die 137. Infanteriedivision, p. 52.

58. "AOK 4 der Oberbefehlshaber. A.H. Qu., an Heeresgruppe Mitte," Fourth Army,"AnlagenA,KTBNr.9,"9Sept. 1941, BA-MA 13715/2; M. Fretter-Pico, Missbrauchte Infanterie: deutsche Infanteriedivisionen im osteuro-paischen Grossraum, 1941-1944 (Frankfurt/M., 1957), pp. 5-6.

59. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," 28 July 1941, T-313/80/7318781; IXth Army Corps, "KTB 7," 31 July 1941, T-314/405/000578; Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 193.

60. IXth Army Corps, "KTB 7," 2 Aug. 1941, T-314/405/000584. See also A. Schmidt, Ceschichte der ID. Division; 10. Infanterie-Division (mot.), 10. Panzer-Grenadier-Division, 1933-1945 (Bad Nauheim, 1963), pp. 103-105.

61. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 11 July 1941, T-313/80/7318589;

Guderian, Panzer Leader, pp. 188, 212.

62. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 3 August 1941, T-313/80/7318845;

IXth Army Corps, "KTB 7," 3 Aug. 1941, T-314/405/000591.

63. IXth Army Corps, "KTB 7," 5 Aug. 1941, T-314/405/000600.

64. Ibid., 6 Aug. 1941, 000606-000607.

65. Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 193.

66. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 10 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000400-000401. See also Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 170-171.

67. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 163-164.

68. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 1 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000390-000391; Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 157.

69. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 6 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000391.

70. Panzer Leader, p. 193.

71. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 7-8 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000391, -000397-000398.

72. Ibid., 9 Aug. 1941, 000398.

73. Ibid.,9-13 Aug. 1941, 000398-000404; Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, pp. 11-13, Aug. 1941, T-313/80/7318934-7318962; Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 195.

74. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 16 Aug. 1941, T-313/80/7319000.

75. Second Army, "KTB Teil I," 13 Aug. 1941, T-312/1654/000130.

76. Ibid., 14 Aug. 1941,000135.

77. Ibid., 14-15 Aug. 1941, 000136-000144; Platonov, Vioraia mirovaia voina, p. 211.

78. Second Army, "KTB Teil I," 16 Aug. 1941, T-312/1654/000145.

79. Ibid., 17 Aug. 1941, 000153.

80. Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 196.

81. See Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 20 Aug. 1941, T-313/80/7319042.

82. Ibid., 7319033.

83. p. 196.

84. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 16 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000409-000410.

85. Second Army, "KTB Teil I," 18 Aug. 1941, T-312/1654/000159-000160.

86. Ibid., 19-20 Aug. 1941,000164-000168.

87. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 19-21 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000412-000415.

88. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, pp. 466, 468.

89. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 180; Hoth, Panzer-Operationen, p. 122.

90. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 474; Manstein, Verlorene Siege, pp. 201-203;

Tippelskirch, Geschichte des Zweiten Weltkrieges, p. 193.

91. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 15 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000407-000408; Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 179-180; Hoth, Panzer-Operationen, pp. 122-123.

92. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 30 July and 2 Aug, 1941, T-84/271/000380, 000385; Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 167-168;

von Knobelsdorff, Geschichte der niedersachsischen 19. Panzer-Division (Bad Nauheim, 1958), pp. 98-107.

93. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 9 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000399;

Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 165-166; Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 461.

94. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 12 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000403.

95. Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 74; Rokossovskii, Soldatskii dolg, pp. 39-41.

96. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 20 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000413;

Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. 1, pp. 470-471.

97. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, 472-474.

98. Ibid., pp. 474-479; Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 26 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000426; XXlIIrd Army Corps, la., "KTB Nr. 8," 22-25 Aug. 1941, BA-MA RH 24-23/42 (13677/10); XLth Army Corps, la., "KTB Nr. 3," 22-26 Aug. 1941, BA-MA 31093/1; LVIIth Panzer Corps, la. "KTB Nr. I," 20-24 Aug. 1941, BA-MA 15683/1; Hoth, Panzer-Operationen, p. 123.

CHAPTER 6. HITLER VERSUS THE GENERALS

{1}Halder, Hitler als Feldherr, pp. 37-38; Hoth, Pawer-Operationen, pp. 107-108; Manstein, Verlorene Siege, pp. 173, 305-306; Nehring, Die Geschichte der deutschen Panwrwaffe, pp. 125, 132, 228; Tippelskirch, Geschichte des Zweiten Weltkrieges, p. 198; Westphal, Heer in Fessetn, p. 80; Buchheit, Hitler der Feldherr, pp. 169, 231-235; Hillgruber, Hitlers Strategic, p. 225; R. Hofmann, "Die Schlacht von Moskau, 1941," in Entscheidungs-schlachten des Zweiten Weltkrieges, ed. by H. Jacobsen and J. Rohwer (Frankfurt/M. 1960), pp. 143-144; Philippi and Heim, Der Feldwg, pp. 67-71; J. Fest, Hitler: erne Biographic (Frankfurt/M., 1973), p. 889; T. Higgins, Hitler and Russia: The Third Reich in a Two-Front War, 1937-1943 (New York, 1966), p. 278; Seaton, The Battle for Moscow, pp. 29, 168, 185; Idem, The Russo-German War, 1941-1945 (New York, 1970), pp. 132, 152.
{2}Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. 11, p. 454.
{3}Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, pp. 208-209.
{4}Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 64-65.
{5}Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 24-25; Guderian, Panwr Leader, pp. 166-167.
{6}Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 21 July 1941, T-84/271/000350.
{7}Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 183.
{8}Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 103-107.
{9}Ibid., pp. 106-107.
{10}Ibid., pp. 117-118.
{11}Hitler's War Directives, pp. 85-88.
{12}Ibid., pp. 89-90.
{13}Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 1034.
{14}Ibid., vol. I, p. 1035.
{15}Ibid., vol. I, p. 1035.
{16}Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 25 July 1941, T-84/271/000358-000369. See also Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, pp. 1035-1036.

17. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 26-27 July 1941, T-84/271/000371-000375.

18. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. I, 28 July 1941 T-313/80/7318775.

19. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 122-123.

20. Ibid., p. 124; Manstein, Verlorene Siege, pp. 198-99.

21. Kriegslagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 170E. Here the editor of the Kriegstagebuch OKW, P. Schramm, remarks that the general staff cooperated closely with the Wehrmacht Operations Staff section chiefs.

22. Ibid., vol. I, pp. 1036-1037; Hoth, Panwr-Operationen, p. 112.

23. "Sonderakte Jodi, Operative Entscheidungen, 1941" "Barbarossa," Aniage 8, 29 June 1941, BA-MA RW 4/v. 78 (OKW/1570); Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 1037.

24. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, pp. 1040-1041.

25. Hitler's War Directives, pp. 90-93.

26. Halder, Kriegstagebuch. vol. Ill, p. 134.

27. Ibid., p. 136.

28. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, pp. 1041-1043.

{28a}In March 1943, von Treschkow and his cohorts tried unsuccessfully to explode a bomb aboard Hitler's plane. This plot failed only due to a faulty detonator in the device. Halder and von Treschkow had been close collaborators for some time.

29. See his Barbarossa, pp. 98-101. See also O'Neill, The German Army and the Nazi Party, 1933-1939, pp. 150-163; Schlabrendorff, Offiwre gegen Hitler, pp. 54-55, 95-97.

30. Guderian, Panwr Leader, p. 189.

31. Ibid., pp. 189-190; Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 1042; Hoth, Panwr-Operationen, p. 117.

32. A. Bullock, Hitler: a Study in Tyranny (London, 1952), p. 612.

33. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 1043; von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 4 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000386-000387.

34. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 153.

35. Ibid., p. 155.

36. Ibid., p. 121.

37. Ibid., p. 157; von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 6 Aug. 1941 T-84/271 /000390-000391.

38. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 159-160. The emphasis occurs in Halder's transcript of the meeting.

39. Ibid., p. 160. See also E. Murawski, Derdeutsche Wehrmachtbericht, 1939-1945 (Boppard am Rhein, 1962), p. 53.

40. Kriegslagebuch OKW, vol. I, pp. 1043-1044.

41. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 164-165.

42. Ibid., pp. 165, 170.

43. Hitler's War Directives, pp. 93-95.

44. See Rohricht, Probleme der Kesselschlacht, p. 56.

45. Hitler's War Directives, pp. 94-95.

46. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 175.

47. Ibid., p. 176.

48. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, pp. 1054-1055.

49. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 468; Hoth, Panwr-Operationen, pp. 122-123. For the activities of the XXXIXth Panzer Corps in the drive toward Leningrad, see C. de Beaulieu, Der Vorstoss der Pamergruppe 4 auf Leningrad (Neckargemund, 1961), pp. 133 ff.

50 Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, pp. 1055-1059.

51. Ibid., p. 1056.

52. Ibid., pp. 1056-1057.

53. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 1057.

54. (bid., p. 1059.

55. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 159.

56. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 1059.

57. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 170.

58. See P. Schramm's introduction to the Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, 169E, 184E, 200E.

59. Ibid., pp. 1016.

60. Ibid., pp. 1045-1047.

61. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 25 July 1941, T-84/271/000361-000362.

62. Kesselring, Memoirs, p. 93.

63. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 32.

64. Ibid., p. 176; von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 14 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000405-000406.

65. Warlimont, Inside Hitler's Headquarters, p. 190.

66. Heusinger, Befehl im Widerstreit, pp. 132-135.

67. Warlimont, Inside Hitler's Headquarters, p. 190; Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 1062.

68. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, pp. 1063-1068.

69. Ibid., p. 1063.

70. Ibid., p. 1066.

71. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 193.

72. See Kesselring, Memoirs, p. 93.

73. Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 194; von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 23 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000421-000422; Guderian, Power Leader, p. 198.

74. Guderian, Erinnerungen eines Soldaten (Heidelberg, 1951), pp. 179-180.

75. Panzer Group 2, la., "KTB Nr. I," vol. II, 24 Aug. 1941, 25034/60, T-313/86/326515-326516.

76. Panzer Group 2, la., "Anglage zum KTB vom 23.8.1941," BA-MA RH 21-2/v. 177 (25034/63), pp. 10-11.

77. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 23 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000421-000422.

78. Panzer Group 2, "KTB Nr. I," vol. II, 24 Aug. 1941, T-313/86/326511-326512; Guderian, Power Leader, pp. 199-202.

79. Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 200.

80. Ibid., p. 202; von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 23 Aug. 1941, T-84/271 /000421 -000422.

81. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 194-195.

82. Ibid., pp. 24-25.

83. Barbarossa, p. 112.

CHAPTER 7. STALIN AND KIEV, HITLER AND MOSCOW

1. Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 448; Artemev, "Nepreodolimaia pregrada na podstupakh k stolitse," in Bitva w Moskvu, ed. Institute for Party History of the Moscow Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Moscow, 1968), pp. 111-113.

2. Zhukov, Memoirs, pp. 287-289.

3. Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 71.

4. Eremenko, Na zapadnom napravlenii, pp. 71-72.

5. Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 472; Zhilin, Vazhneishie operatsii, p. 88.

6. Eremenko, Na wpadnom napravlenii, p. 78.

7. Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 104.

8. Zhilin, Vazhneishie operatsii, p. 88.

9. Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 98.

10. Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 295; Bagramian, Tak nachinaias voma (Moscow, 1971), pp. 300-301.

11. Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 296.

12. Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 104; Zhukov, Memoirs, pp. 294-296; Eremenko, Na zapadnom napravlenii, pp. 71-72.

13. Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 62; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p. 449.

14. Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 104; K. Moskalenko, Na lugo-zapadnom napravlennii (Moscow, 1969), p. 61.

15. Eremenko, Na zapadnom napravlenii, pp. 85-86; Khoroshilov and Bazhenov, "Eininskaia nastupatelnaia operatsiia 1941 g.," Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, September 1974, p. 77.

16. Moskalenko, Na iugo-zapadnom napravlenii, p. 62.

17. Ibid., p. 68; Bagramian, Tak nachinaias voina, pp. 304-305.

18. Bagramian, Tak nachinaias voina, pp. 302-303; Moskalenko, Na iugo-zapadnom napravlenii, p. 61; von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 25 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000424-000425.

19. Bagramian, Tak nachinaias voina, p. 306; Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 206.

20. Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, pp. 124-125.

21. Guderian, Panzer Leader, pp. 207-208.

22. Eremenko, Na zapadnom napravlenii, pp. 92-93.

23. Ibid., pp. 97-99.

24. Leverkuehn, German Military Intelligence, pp. 178-183.

25. Bagramian, Tak nachinaias voina, p. 318.

26. Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 298.

27. Guderian, Panzer Leader, pp. 213-214; Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 106; Bagramian, Tak nachinaias voina, p. 218.

28. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 9 Sept. 1941, T-84/271/000448;

Guderian, Panzer Leader, pp. 214-215.

29. Bagramian, Tak nachinaias voina, p. 319.

30. Ibid., p. 325.

31. Ibid., p. 326; Moskalenko, Na iugo-wpadnom napravlenii, pp. 82-83.

32. Zhukov, Memoirs, pp. 298-299; Moskalenko, Na iugo-wpadnom napravlenii, pp. 83-84; Bagramian, Tak nachinalas voina, pp. 327-330; Istoriia Velikoi Otecheslvennoi voiny, vol. It, p. 107.

33. Isloriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 107; Moskalenko, Na iugo-wpadnom napravlenii, p. 84; Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 235; "Budenny, S. M.," in Bolshaia Sovefskaia Entsiklopediia (3rd ed.; Moscow, 1970), vol. I, p. 92.

34. Eremenko, Na zapadnom napravlenii, p. 95; Moskalenko, Na iugo-wpadnom napravlenii, p. 87.

35. Eremenko, Na wpadnom napravlenii, p. 95.

36. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 12 Sept. 1941, T-84/271/000451-000452; Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 216.

37. Bagramian, Tak nachinalas voina, p. 321.

38. Ibid., pp. 323-324; Moskalenko, Na iugo-wpadnom napravlenii, pp. 68-75.

39. Moskalenko, Na iugo-wpadnom napravlenii, p. 89.

40. Ibid., p. 89; Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 108.

41. Moskalenko, Na iugo-wpadnom napravlenii, p. 89.

42. Ibid., pp. 90-91; Bagramian, Tak nachinalas voina, pp. 334-338.

43. Bagramian, Tak nachinalas voina, p. 335.

44. Isloriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 111.

45. Moskalenko, Na iugo-wpadnom napravlenii, p. 91.

46. Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 219. According to the Soviet official history, Bagramian reached Kirponos's headquarters on September 16 and the Southwestern Front received confirmation of the retreat order at 11:40 A.M. on September 17. Bagramian notes in his memoirs, however, that due to bad weather his plane did not take off from Poltava until September 17. Moskalenko has recorded that the confirmation was not received until the night of September 18, a version that would agree with Bagramian's account. See Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, p. 109; Bagramian, Tak nachinalas voina, p. 335; Moskalenko, Na iugo-wpadnom napravlenii, p. 91.

47. Panzer Leader, pp. 225-226.

48. Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. II, pp. 109-110.

49. Ibid., pp. 110-111; Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 225. See also "Lageorien-tierung Osten," OKH, Gen.Stb.d.H./Op.abt. (IIb), 27 Sept. 1941, BA-MA H 22/218; Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 254, 257.

50. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 206-207.

51. Zhukov, Memoirs, pp. 297-298.

52. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 207.

53. Ibid., p. 208.

54. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 30 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000432.

55. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 208.

56. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 31 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000433-000435.

57. Ibid., 000433-000434.

58. Ibid., 000422-000423.

59. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 200-201.

60. Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 207.

61. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 27 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000427.

62. Ibid., 000428.

63. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 203-204.

64. Ibid., p. 204; von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 29 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000429.

65. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 31 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000434.

66. Fourth Army, "KTB Nr. 9," 30 Aug. 1941, T-312/143/681663; Vllth Army Corps, la., "KTB Nr. 5b," 29 Aug.-2 Sept. 1941, BA-MA 17263/1.

67. Fourth Army, "KTB Nr. 9," 31 Aug. 1941, T-312/143/681668-681672; von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 30 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000432; Panzer Group 2, la., "Aniage zum KTB vom 31 August 1941," BA-MA21-2/V. 185 (25034/71), p. 13.

68. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 208; von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 31 Aug. 1941, T-84/271/000433.

69. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 2 Sept. 1941, T-84/271/000438-000439; Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 211-212.

70. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 2 Sept. 1941, T-84/271/000438.

71. Panzer Group 2, la., "Aniage zum KTB vom 4 Sept. 1941," BA-MA21-2/V. 189(25034/75), p. 18.

72. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 2 Sept. 1941, T-84/271/000438-000439; Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, pp. 213-214.

73. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 6 Sept. 1941, T-84/271/000445.

74. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 215.

75. Hitler's War Directives, pp. 96-98. Hitler's original plan to begin the new offensive by mid-September was modified at the request of the OKH.

76. Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 129; H. Plocher, The German Air Force versus Russia, 1941 (New York, 1965), pp. 146-147.

77. Kriegstagebuch OKW, vol. I, p. 1070; "Directive of the High Command of the Wehrmacht,'' Documents on German Foreign Policy, Series D, XIII, no. 388, pp. 623-624. See also M. Steinert, Hitler's War and the Germans: Public Mood and Attitude during the Second World War (Athens, Ohio 1977), p. 127.

78. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 10 Sept. 1941, T-84/271/000449.

79. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 11 Sept. 1941, T-84/271/000450.

80. "Lageorientierung Osten," OKH, Gen.Stb.d.H./Op.abt. (IIb), 19 Oct. 1941, BA-MA H22/218; Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 17 Sept. 1941, T-84/271/000457-458.

81. Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal, vol. VII, pp. 370-371.

CHAPTER 8. STRATEGY AND TACTICS: A REEVALUATION

1. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 11 Sept. 1941, T-84/271 /000450, Halder, Knegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 224.

2. Halder, Knegstagebuch, vol. Ill, p. 222; K. Reinhardt, Die Wende vor Moskau (Stuttgart, 1972), pp. 57, 317. See also Plocher, The German Air Force versus Russia, 1941, pp 234-236. According to this German source, the height of air operations in the Army Group Center area occurred during the period October 22-25. On October 24 Kesselnng's Air Fleet 2 managed to put 662 planes in the air, but operations fell off rapidly afterward due to the deteriorating weather and the difficulty of moving fuel supplies forward over the incredibly muddy and badly rutted roads

3 Rohncht, Problems der Kesselschlacht, pp. 38-45; G. Blumentntt, "Impossible Situations" (unpublished study by Historical Division, HQ U.S. Army Europe, Foreign Military Studies Branch, 1948), National Archives MS., no. B-682, pp. 6-9.

4 Gudenan, Panzer Leader, p 235 See also "Weisung fur die Fortfuhrung der Operationen der H Gr. Mitte und Nord," OKH/Gen Stb.d.H /Op.abt. (I), 13 Oct. 1941, H22/353, T-78/335/291854. Also, compare Gudenan, Panzer Leader, pp. 226, 234-235 with "Gesprach Chef Heeresgruppe-Chef Panzergruppe am 10 9 41, 21.35 hr.," Panzer Group 2, la , "Aniage zum KTB vom 10 Sept 1941," BA-MA RH21-2/V. 195 (25034/81), pp 91-92.

5 The old assumptions about Hitler's iron will and stubborn purpose should no longer be given credence. See the commentary by W. Langer, The Mind of Adolf Hitler- The Secret Wartime Report (New York, 1972), pp. 201-202; H -D Rohrs, Hitlers Krankheit: Tatschen und Legenden (Neckargemund, 1966), pp. 51-52

6 Moskalenko, Na lugo-zapadnom napravlenu, pp 130-131.

7. Ibid., p. 131; S. Shtemenko, "Nekotorye voprosy strategichskogo ruko-vodstva vooruzhennymi silame," Vsemirno-istoncheskaia pobeda, p. 202; Zhilm, Vazhneishie operatsii, p. 107

8. Zhukov had been sent to Leningrad on September 8, after he had completed his assignment at Yelnia. See his Memoirs, p. 297 9 G. Zhukov, Marshal Zhukov's Greatest Battles (New York, 1969), pp. 49-50; Istorna Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, vol II, p 241; V Sokolovsku, Razgrom nemetsko-fashistskikh voisk pod Moskvoi (Moscow, 1964), pp. 38-39.

10. Rohncht, Probleme der Kesselschlacht, p. 45

11. Marshal Zhukov's Greatest Battles, p. 51.

12 Ibid

13. See Sokolovskii, Razgrom nemetsko-fashistskikh voisk pod Moskvoi, p.

29; A. Vasilevskii, "Nachalo korennogo povorata v khode vomy," Bitva za Moskvu, pp. 15-16.

14 "Osemu 1941g ," Bitva w Moskvu, p. 51.

15 H.-A. Jacobsen, "The Kommissarbefehl and Mass Executions of Soviet Prisoners of War," Anatomy of the SS State, p. 531 A Polish source puts the total number of Soviet POWs dead at 2,800,000-3,000,000. See Datner, Crimes against POWs, pp 225-226

16. For information about how the defense of Moscow was prepared, see Artemev, "Nepreodolimaia pregrada na podstupakh k stolitse," Bitva za Moskvu, pp. 111-126; Sokolovskii, Razgrom nemetsko-fashistskikh voisk pod Moskvoi, pp. 57-61; G. Knmanev, "Vklad rabotmkov sovetskogo trans-porta v pobedy nad fashistskoi Germaniei," Vsemirno-sitoncheskaia pobeda, pp. 352-353, I Pavlovskn, "Sukhoputnye voiska v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine," ibid., pp. 38-39.

{16a}The original Twenty fourth Army had been surrounded at Viazma This unit number was revived by the Russian command and given to a new formation farther east The designation "shock army" (udarnaia armiia) was a new classification given to some field units in the fall of 1941.

17. Istorna Velikoi Otechestvennoi vomy, vol II, p. 271.

18 Zhukov, Memoirs, pp. 336-337; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, p 497;

Fedorov, Aviatsia v bitve pod Moskvoi, p. 261.

19. Artemev was made a deputy commander of the Western Front and was directly subordinate to Zhukov See Zhukov, Marshal Zhukov's Greatest Battles, p 48; Provai glllerovskogo nastuplenua na Moskvu, ed A Samsonov (Moscow, 1966), p. 78.

20. 50 let vooruzhennykh sil SSSR, pp 290-291; F. Lisitsyn, "Pervaia udarnaia," Bitva w Moskvu, pp. 292-304, A. Beloborodov, "Sibinaki v vehkoi bitve za Moskvu," ibid., pp. 230-231, K. Rokossovskn, "Na volokolamskom napravlenii," ibid , pp. 163-164. See also Zhukov, Memoirs, p. 221, Kazakov, Nad kartoi bylykh sra^henu, p. 64.

21. Zhukov, Marshal Zhukov's Greatest Battles, p. 79, Sokolovskii, Raigrom nemetsko-fashistskikh voisk pod Moskvoi, pp 110-111, 118 ff, Istorua vtoroi mirovoi voiny, 1939-1945, vol. IV, pp. 283-284 22 Zhukov, Memoirs, pp. 351-352; idem,. Marshal Zhukov's Greatest Battles, pp 99-100. 23. Samsonov, Velikaia bitva pod Moskvoi, pp. 176, 184

24 Ibid., pp. 189-190; Sokolovskii, Razgrom nemetsko-fashistskikh voisk pod Moskvoi, p 181 See also Istorna Velikoi Otechestvennoi vomy, vol II, p. 256.

25 Zhilin, Vazhneishie operatsii, pp.34, 101-102; Samsonov, Velikaia bitva pod Moskvoi, p 170.

26. Zhukov, Marshal Zhukov's Greatest Battles, p. 100. 27 See Reinhardt, Die Wende vor Moskau, pp 197-243.

28. See ibid., p 257, n.

29. It was not without reason that Stalin called artillery "the God of War." For a detailed explanation of how the Red Army made use of artillery in combined-arms operations, see H Gordon, "Artillery," The Red Army, pp 344-353, G. Peredelskn, "Osnovnye pnntsipy primenenna artillerii v nastupatelnykh operatsnakh," Vsemirno-istoncheskaia pobeda, pp. 85-87 For a good description of a Russian combined-arms assault in 1943 and the effect of Russian artillery, see F von Mellenthm, Panzer Battles: A Study of the Employment of Armor in the Second World War (Norman, Okla. 1956), p 247

30. Kolganov, Razvitie taktiki sovetskoi armil, p. 357 See also G. Blumentntt, "The State and Performance of the Red Army, 1941," The Red Army, p 138; F. Bayerlem and N. Galey, "The Armoured Forces," ibid., pp. 307-312.

31. Kolganov, Razvitie taktiki sovetskoi armil, pp. 183-184; Radzievskii, "Razvitie taktiki sukhoputnykh voisk," Vsemirno-istoncheskaia pobeda, pp 228-230.

32. J. Enckson, Soviet Command and Control: Past Present and Future (unpub-lished manuscript supplied by the Center For Strategic Technology, Texas A & M University, 1980), pp. 56-69; The Russian War Machine, 1917-1945, ed. S. L. Mayer (Secaucus, N.J., 1977), pp. 190-191.

33. See von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 20 July 1941, T-84/271/000345-000346; ibid., 22 July 1941, 000352.

34. Guderian's biographer, Kenneth Macksey, blames Halder for pursuing the goal of Moscow while delaying the completion of the Kiev operation. He also blames Hitler for wanting to contain the Briansk pocket and capture Kursk instead of aiding Guderian's drive on Tula. See Macksey, Guderian, pp. 152-155. This approach of blaming everyone on the German side except Guderian for the failure of the advance on Moscow ignores the reality of the situation, certainly insofar as the position and strength of the Soviet reserves is concerned.

35. Speer, Inside the Third Reich, pp. 303-306; W. Boeike, Deutschlands Rustung im Zweiten Weltkrieg (Frankfurt/M., 1969), pp. 8-9.

36. See S. Golikov, Vydaiushchiesia pobeda Sovetskoi Armii v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine (Moscow, 1954), pp. 25-26; Partiino-politicheskaia rabola v sovelskikh vooniihennykh silakh, ed. A. Khmel (Moscow, 1964), pp. 36-37. See also Hillgruber, Hitlers Strategic, pp. 527-528.

37. Haupt, Geschichte der 134. Infanterie-Division, p. 27.

38. Fretter-Pico, Missbrauchte Infanterie, pp. 29, 41-42, W. Strik-Strikfeldt, Against Stalin and Hitler: Memoirs of the Russian Liberation Movement, 1941-1945 (New York, 1973), p. 27.

39. See Halder, Hitler als Feldherr, p. 44; Blumentritt, "Moscow," The Fatal Decisions, p. 73; Guderian, Panwr Leader, pp. 266-267. See also Leach, German Strategy, pp. 118-123; The Goebbels Diaries, 1942-1943, ed. L. Lockner (New York, 1948), pp. 135-136; Hitler: Reden und Proklamationen, ed M. Domarus (2 vols., 4 parts; Munich, 1965), vol. IIb: Untergang, 1941-1945, pp. 1815-1816.

40. Fretter-Pico, Missbrauchte Infanterie, p. 42.

41. This was clearly demonstrated at Yelnia. See Gallenkamp, "Nachtkampfe," National Archives MS., no. P-054b, Project 40, pp. 14-15. See also V. Chuikov, The Battle for Stalingrad (New York, 1964), p. 72.

42. Fretter-Pico, Missbrauchte Infanterie, p. 5.

43. "AOK 4 der O.B., an Heeresgruppe Mitte," Fourth Army, la., "Aniagen A, KTB Nr. 9," 9 Sept. 1941, BA-MA 13715/2.

44. Von Bock, "Tagebuchnotizen Osten I," 14 Oct. 1941, T-84/271/000488-000489.

45. Hitler's War Directives, pp. 116-121.

46. Hofmann, "Die Schlacht von Moskau, 1941," Entscheidungsschlachten des Zweiten Weltkrieges, pp. 159-160.

47. See Zhukov, Marshal Zhukov's Greatest Battles, p. 77; A. Eremenko, Protiv falsifikatsii istorii mirovoi voiny (Moscow, 1958), pp. 14-20; M. Zakharov, "Podvig sovetskikh vooruzhennuykh sil v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine," Vsemirno-istoricheskaia pobeda, p. 24; Zhilin, Vazhneishie operatsii, p. 107; Anfilov, Bessmertnyi podvig, pp. 46-53; Kolganov, Ravitie taktiki sovetskoi armii, pp. 92-93; Proektor, Agressia i katastrofa, p. 270.

48. Hofmann and Toppe, "Consumption and Attrition Rates of Army Group Center," National Archives MS., no. p-190, pp. 68-69; E. Middeldorf, Taktik im Russlandfeldzug: Erfahrungen und Folgerungen (Darmstadt, 1956), pp. 70-71.

49. Middeldorf, Taktik im Russlandfetdzug, p. 51; L. Geyer von Schweppen-burg, Gebrochenes Schwert (Berlin, 1952), pp. 74-75.

50. See V. Kazakov, "Artilleristy v boiakh pod Moskvoi," Bitva w Moskvu, pp. 186-193; Zhilin, Vaihneishie operatsii, p. 91.

51. See Gen.Stb.d.H./Op.abt., "Chefsachen 1941, Bd, I," 18 Nov. 1941, BA-MA III H/434 Teil 2 (3356/41). See also Middeldorf, Taktik im Russlandfeldzug, p. 36.

52. Buchheit, Hitler der Feldherr, p. 250.

53. Middeldorf, Taktik im Russlandfeldwg, pp. 189-J9). See also Buchheit, Hitler der Feldherr, p. 235; Philippi and Heim, Der Feldzug, pp. 79-80; K. Macksey, Tank Warfare: A History of Tanks in Battle (London, 1971), pp. 110-113.

54. V. Belov, Kogda bushuiut grozi: kaluzhskaia oblast v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine (Tula, 1970), pp. 19, 28-29; A. Litvinov, "Pod Serpukhovym," Bitva w Moskvu, pp. 313-316.

55. Zhukov, Marshal Zhukov's Greatest Battles, p. 34.

56. Idem., Memoirs, p. 345.

57. Eremenko, Protiv falsifilatsii istorii, p. 30.

Bibliography