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Appendix B.

Part I.
Organization And Structure Of The German Army, 1941

In an examination of the organization and structure of the German army in 1941 it is important to keep in mind the distinction between the Army (Das Heer) and the Armed Forces (Die Wehrmacht) Since it was the Army that bore the brunt of the fighting in Russia, no attempt will be made here to discuss the structures of the other components of the armed forces A detailed treatise on the Luftwaffe would be more appropriate in a book dealing with the Battle of Britain or the air battle over Germany from 1943 to 1945

In 1941 much of the army's organizational structure was not at all different from what it had been in World War I The foundation of the army was the military district (Wehrkreis) In 1941 there were twenty-one districts in the Greater German Reich Each district was home base to several divisions and their subordinate regiments When war mobilization began in 1939 there were 51 divisions and 2 brigades At the time of the Russian campaign, the strength of the army had risen to 208 divisions, of these about 154 were on the eastern front, including 4 German divi sions in Finland

The German war mobilization plan was based on a two-part Ersatz, or replacement system Each peacetime unit that was already at full combat strength was supposed to have a permanent replacement unit behind it The purpose of this replacement unit was to handle recruiting and training and also to organize the reservists should they be called up Replacement divisional headquarters were set up that, during peacetime, had purely administrative functions [344] This plan allowed for rapid mobilization in event of a war or crisis without causing large transportation or economic dislocations. When war occurred, four waves (Welte) of infantry could be raised on relatively short notice: (1) active units, (2) reservists, (3) Landwehr territorial units, and (4) men 19-20 years old (Jahrgange) who had undergone a short period of training. The 1921 Jahrgang was called up in March 1941, and the 1922 group in May. These forces were brought into the replacement army (Ersatzheer). In June, 1941, 80,000 men were available as immediate replacements for the eastern front, and another 300,000-350,000 were in the Ersatzheer, mostly in the 20th Jahrgang. In 1939 the population of the Greater German Reich was 80.6 million: 38.9 million men and 41.7 million women. Of the men, 12 million fell into the age group 15-34; of these, the Wehrmacht could expect to claim 7 million. In 1939 the civilian labor force was reckoned at 24.5 million men and 14.6 million women: 18.1 million men were employed in war-related or critical industries. In June 1941, the German Army had 3.8 million men, of which 3.3 million were deployed against the Soviet Union. Of 21 fully equipped panzer divisions, 17 were targeted for Russia, 2 were in the OKH reserve destined for Russia, and 2 were in North Africa. In 1941 the army high command structure was organized as shown in Figure 1-B.

The backbone of the German army was, of course, the infantry division. Of the 154 divisions deployed against Russia, including reserves, there were 100 infantry, 19 panzer, 11 motorized, 9 security, 5 Waffen SS, 4 light, 4 mountain, 1 SS police, and 1 cavalry. A typical infantry division in June 1941 had 17,734 men organized as follows:*

three infantry regiments with staff, communications units
three battalions with:
three light MG companies
one heavy MG company
one PAK company (mot.)
one artillery company
one reconnaissance unit
one Panzerjager unit with:
three companies (twelve 3.7cm guns)
one artillery regiment
one pioneer battalion
one communications unit
one field replacement battalion
Supply, medical, veterinary, mail, and police

*Source: Mueller-Hillebrand, Das Heer, 1933-1945. vol. II, pp. 161-162. [345] [Fig.1-B] [346]

An infantry division was outfitted with the following equipment:*
LMG 378
HMG 138
ATL 90 (antitank rocket launchers)
50 Mtr 93
81 Mtr 54
20 Gun 12
PAK 75
75 How 20
105 How 36
MT 1009 (motorized transport vehicles)
HD 918 (horse-drawn transport vehicles)
Horses 4842
AFV 3 (armored fighting vehicles)

*Source: War in the East: The Russo-Cerman Conflict, 1941-1945 (Simultations Publications, 1977), p. 141.

The typical panzer division in 1941 had 15,600 men organized as follows: *

one panzer regiment with staff, communications units
two panzer units with:
two light tank companies
one medium tank company
one repair company
one repair company
two battalions with:
three light MG companies
one heavy MG company
one light artillery and PAK company
one infantry artillery company
one reconnaissance unit
one artillery regiment
one Panzerjager unit
one pioneer battalion
one communications unit
one field-surgical battalion
Supply, veterinary, mail, and police

*Source: Mueller-Hillebrand, Das Heer, 1933-1945, vol. II, pp. 182-183. [347]

A panzer division was outfitted with the following equipment:*
LMG 850
HMG 1067
ATL 45
81 Mtr 30
20 Gun 74
PAK 75
75 How 18
105 How 196
MT 2900
Tanks 165

*Source: War in Ihe East: The Russo-German Conflict, 1941-1945,p.144

The typical motorized infantry division in 1941 had 16,400 men organized as follows (in 1943, these units were given extra armor and renamed "Panzer Grenadiers"):*

two infantry regiments with staff, communications units
three battalions with:
three light MG companies
one heavy MG company
one motorcycle platoon
one artillery company
one PAK company
two motorcycle battalions with:
three light MG companies
one heavy MG company
one light artillery and PAK company
one reconnaisance unit
one artillery regiment
one Panzerjager unit
one pioneer battalion
one communications unit
one field-surgical battalion
Supply, veterinary, mail, and police

*Source: Mueller-Hillchrand, Das Heer, 1933-1945, vol. 11, pp. 179-180. [348]

A motorized infantry division was outfitted with the following equipment:*
LMG 810
HMG 712
ATL 63
50Mtr 57
81Mtr 36
20 Gun 12
PAK 63
75 How 14
105 How 48
MT 2800
AFV 82

* Source: War in the East: The Russo-German Conflict, 1941-1945, p. 144.

TABLE 1-B. Availability of German Armored Vehicles on the Eastern Front, June 22, 1941*
I ca. 180
II 1518
III 965
IV 439
Armored Command Vehicles 230
Total Tanks ca. 3332
Sturmgeschutz Self-Propelled Artillery 250
Total AFVs ca. 3582

* Source: Mueller-Hillebrand, Das Heer, 1933-1945, vol. II, p. 106.

TABLE 2-B. Production of Tanks and Self-propelled Artillery in 1941*
1Q 155 288 85 60 104 692
2Q 234 400 103 41 151 929
3Q 276 484 128 13 122 1023
4Q 266 541 164 18 1152 -
Totals: 931 1713 480 132 540 3796

*Source: Mueller-Hillebrand, Das Heer, 1933-1945, vol. II, p. 106. [349]

TABLE 3-B. Tank Availability on the Eastern Front, September 4, 1941*
  Unit Combat-Ready In Repair Total Losses Initial Strengh
Panzer Group I 9th PD 62 67 28 157
13th PD 96 30 21 147
14th PD 112 24 21 157
16th PD 61 26 70 157
Total Panzer Group I 331 147 140 618
(in %) (53) (24) (23) (100)
Temporarily subordinated to 6th Army 11th PD 60 75 40 175
Panzer Group II 3rd PD 41 157 198
4th PD 49 120 169
17th PD 38 142 180
18th PD 62 138 200
Total Panzer Group II 190 557 747
(in %) (25) (75) (100)
Temporarily subordinated to 4th Army 10th PD 159 22 25 206
Panzer Group III 7th PD 130 87 82 299
19th PD 102 47 90 239
20th PD 88 62 95 245
Total Panzer Group III 320 196 267 783
(in %) (41) (25) (34) (100)
Panzer Group IV 1st PD 97 24 33 154
6th PD 188 11 55 254
8th PD 155 33 35 223
Total Panzer Group IV 440 68 123 631
(in %) (70) (11) (19) (100)
Temporarily subordinated to 16th Army 12th PD 96 34 101 231
Total for Eastern Front 1596 542 696 3391
(in %) (47) (ca. 23) (ca. 30) (100)

* Source: Mueller-Hillebrand, Das Heer. 1933-1945, vol. III, p. 205. [350]

Part II. Army Group Center Order Of Battle, June And October, 1941

The Units of Army Group Center, June 21, 1941

Panzer Group 2 (Guderian)

XXIVth Panzer Corps (Geyer von Schweppenburg)
1st Cav. Div., 3rd Pz, 4th Pz, 10th Mot.Div., 267th ID
XLVIth Panzer Corps (von Vietinghoff)
SS "DR"Div., 10th Pz, Inf. Reg. "GD"
XLVIIth Panzer Corps (Lemelsen)
17th Pz, 18th Pz, 29th Mot.Div., 167th ID
XIIth Army Corps (Schroth)
31st ID, 34th ID, 45th ID Reserve: 255th ID

Fourth Army (von Kluge)

VIIth Army Corps (Fahrmbacher)
7th ID, 23rd ID, 258th ID, 268th ID, 221st Sec.Div.
IXth Army Corps (Geyer)
137th ID, 263rd ID, 292nd ID
XIIIth Army Corps (Felber)
17th ID, 78th ID
XLIIIrd Army Corps (Heinrici)
131st ID, 134th ID, 252nd ID Reserve: 286th ID

Ninth Army (Strauss)

VIIIth Army Corps (Heitz)
8th ID, 28th ID, 161st ID
XXth Army Corps (Materna)
162nd ID, 256th ID
XLIInd Army Corps (Kuntze)
87th ID, 102nd ID, 129th ID Reserve: 403rd Sec.Div.

Panzer Group 3 (Hoth)

Vth Army Corps (Ruoff)
5th ID, 35th ID
VIth Army Corps (Forster)
6th ID, 26th ID
XXXIXth Panzer Corps (Schmidt)
7th Pz, 20th Pz, 14th Mot.Div., 20th Mot.Div.
LVIIth Panzer Corps (Kuntzen)
12th Pz, 18th Pz, 19th Pz [351]

In addition, the following command organizations and units were held in reserve directly by Army Group Center or by the OKH in the Army Group Center area.

Second Army, XXXVth Army Corps, XLth Panzer Corps, LIIIrd Army Corps, 15th ID, 110th ID, 197th ID, 293rd ID, Lehrbrigade 900

The Units of Army Group Center, October 2, 1941

Second Army (von Weichs)

LIIIrd Army Corps (Weisenberger)
56th ID, 31st ID, 167th ID
LXIIIrd Army Corps (Heinrici)
52nd ID, 131st ID
XIIIth Army Corps (Felber)
260th ID, 17th ID Reserve: 112th ID

Second Panzer Army (Guderian)

XXXIVth Army Corps (Metz)
45th ID, 134th ID
XXXVth Army Corps (Kempfe)
95th ID, 296th ID, 262nd ID, 293rd ID
XLVIIIth Panzer Corps (Kempff)
9th Pz, 16th Mot.Div., 25th Mot.Div.
XXIVth Panzer Corps (Geyer von Schweppenburg)
3rd Pz, 4th Pz, 10th Mot.Div.
XLVIIth Panzer Corps (Lemelsen)
17th Pz, 18th Pz, 29th Mot.Div.

Fourth Army (von Kluge)

VIIth Army Corps (Fahrmbacher)
197th ID, 7th ID, 23rd ID, 267th ID
XXth Army Corps (Materna)
268th ID, 15th, 78th ID
IXth Army Corps (Geyer)
137th ID, 263rd ID, 183rd ID, 292nd ID

Panzer Group 4 (Hoepner), Subordinated to Fourth Army

XIIth Army Corps (Schroth)
34th ID, 98th ID
XLth-Army Corps (Stumme)
10th Pz, 2ndPz, 258th ID
XLVinT Panzer Corps (von Vietinghoff)
5th Bz, llth Pz, 252nd ID
LVIIth Panzer Corps (Kuntzen)
20th Pz, SS "Das Reich" Mot.Div., 3rd Mot.Div. [352]

Ninth Army (Strauss)

XXVIIth Army Corps (Wager)
255th ID, 162nd ID, 86th ID
Vth Army Corps (Ruoff)
5th ID, 35th ID, 106th ID, 129th ID
VIIIth Army Corps (Heitz)
8th ID, 28th ID, 87th ID
XXIIIrd Army Corps (Schubert)
251st ID, 102nd ID, 256th ID, 206th ID Reserve: 161st ID

Power Group 3 (Hothj, Subordinated to Ninth Army

LVIth Panzer Corps (Schaal)
6th Pz, 7th Pz, 14th Mot.Div.
XLIst Panzer Corps (Reinhardt)
1st Pz, 36th Mot.Div.
VIth Army Corps (Forster)
110th ID, 26th ID, 6th ID

Note: From July 3 to July 29, 1941, the "Fourth Panzer Army" existed under the command of Field Marshal von Kluge. This unit was composed of Panzer Groups 2 and 3 and the IXth and XXth army corps. The OKH believed this new command arrangement would further its goal of reaching Moscow as rapidly as possible in 1941. [353]

Notes